Biomarker discovery and beyond for diagnosis of bladder diseases

biosignatures molecule altered the mobile landscape and has a relaxing function associated with pathological conditions, which implies the promise of specific biomarkers for bladder diseases such as bladder cancer and other dysfunctions. Urinary biomarkers are very interesting because of the cost, time, and effort is minimal and non-invasive obtain urine.

Evolution omics platforms and bioinformatics to analyze the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, lipidome, metabolome, etc., has allowed us to develop a more sensitive biomarker and disease-specific. These findings extend our understanding of the complex biology and pathophysiology of bladder disease, which in turn can be translated into the clinical setting. In this brief review, we will discuss current efforts on the identification of promising biomarkers urinary bladder diseases and their role in the diagnosis and monitoring. With these considerations, we also aim to provide a prospective view of how we can better take advantage of this biomarker in developing bladder ideal and smart medical devices that will be applied in the clinic.


land plants that still exists is composed of two very different groups, tracheophytes and bryophytes, which share a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. While information about the vascular plants and two of the three lineages of bryophytes, mosses and liverworts, which continues to accumulate, hornworts biology poorly explored. However, as the sister group liverworts and mosses, hornworts very important in understanding the evolution of the characteristics of key land plants. To date, there is no agreed hornwort model species for systematic experimental investigations, which hampered detailed insight into the molecular biology and genetics of this unique group of land plants.

Model hornwort species appear, Anthoceros Agrestis role in our efforts to better understand not only the hornwort biology but also the fundamental question of land plant evolution. For this purpose, here we provide an overview hornwort biology and current research on the model plant A. Agrestis to highlight the potential in answering key questions of biology and evolution of land plants.
Keywords: Anthoceros; bryophytes; chloroplast; development; evolution; hornworts; symbiosis.

 Biomarker discovery and beyond for diagnosis of bladder diseases
Biomarker discovery and beyond for diagnosis of bladder diseases

The hornworts: morphology, evolution and development

land plants that still exists is composed of two very different groups, tracheophytes and bryophytes, which share a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. While information about the vascular plants and two of the three lineages of bryophytes, mosses and liverworts, which continues to accumulate, hornworts biology poorly explored. However, as the sister group liverworts and mosses, hornworts very important in understanding the evolution of the characteristics of key land plants.

To date, there is no agreed hornwort model species for systematic experimental investigations, which hampered detailed insight into the molecular biology and genetics of this unique group of land plants. Model hornwort species appear, Anthoceros Agrestis role in our efforts to better understand not only the hornwort biology but also the fundamental question of land plant evolution. For this purpose, here we provide an overview hornwort biology and current research on the model plant A. Agrestis to highlight the potential in answering key questions of biology and evolution of land plants.

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Advances in technology have recently combined the underlying screening large libraries of high-throughput mutation scanning, deepen our understanding of adaptive protein evolution and increasing application in the design of proteins. However, the large number of possible genotypes requires suitable computational methods for data analysis, predictive effects of mutations and sequence generation is optimized.