Characteristics and evolution of the ecosystem of software tools supporting research in molecular biology.
daily work in molecular biology is currently dependent on a large number of computing devices. Deep, large-scale studies of the ‘ecosystem’ Web tool, characteristics, interconnectivity, usage patterns / quotes, temporal evolution and the level of damage is very important to understand the forces that shape and to inform initiatives aimed at funding, long-term maintenance and repair. In particular, long-term maintenance of the tool is interrupted because of their specific development model. Hundreds of published studies be irreproducible de facto, as the software used to make them become unavailable. In this study, we present a large-scale survey> 5400 publication describes the Web server in two major bibliographic sources to disseminate new software developments in molecular biology.
For all these servers, we studied their pattern citation, the subjects they tackle, their citation network and temporal evolution of these factors. We also analyze how these factors affect the availability of this server (whether they are still alive). Our results indicate that these ecosystems are highly interconnected tools and adapt to the ‘trendy’ subjects in every moment. The server presents a characteristic temporal patterns quote / use, and there is an alarming level server ‘death’, which is influenced by factors such as the popularity of server and institutions that host it. These results can inform initiatives aimed at long-term maintenance of these resources.
Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that includes several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg viruses are well known filoviruses that cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. In addition to the pathogenesis of severe, filoviruses also showed a tendency to spread from human to human through close contact, posing a challenge for the containment and crisis management.
outbreaks of the past, especially recently EBOV epidemic of West Africa, has been responsible for thousands of deaths and filoviruses leapfrog into the public consciousness. Both national and international health agencies continue to consider potential outbreaks Filovirus as a major threat to global public health. To develop effective countermeasures, a basic understanding of the biology Filovirus required. This review covers the epidemiology, ecology, molecular biology, and evolution filoviruses.
molecular evolution between chemistry and biology: Interaction of competition, cooperation, and the mutation.
Biological evolution is reduced to three fundamental processes in the spirit of the model at a minimum: (i) competition caused by differential fitness, (ii) cooperation competitor in the sense of symbiosis, and (iii) the variation introduced by mutation understood as reproduction error prone.
Three combinations of two basic processes respectively, ([Formula: see text]) competition and mutation, ([Formula: see text]) cooperation and competition, and ([Formula: see text]) cooperation and mutations, were analyzed. Changes in population dynamics caused by bifurcations and threshold phenomena are discussed.Product not found
DAMBE is a comprehensive software package for the analysis of genomic data and phylogenetic on Windows, Linux, and Macintosh. new functionality including imputing distance and phylogeny lost simultaneously (paving the way for building a phage great and trees transposons), bootstrap new / jackknifing method for PhyPA (phylogenetic of partiality in pairs), and improved functionality for fast and accurate estimation of the parameters of the form of the gamma distribution for fitting degree of heterogeneity on the site.