The regulatory genome constrains protein sequence evolution: implications for the search for disease-associated genes

Development of protein sequence evolution models clearly have far-reaching implications for our understanding of cellular biology, population history, and etiology of the disease. Here we analyze the transcriptome GTEx resources to measure the effects of the transcriptome on the protein sequence evolution within the framework of multi-network. We found substantial variation between the central nervous system tissue expression effect variance on an evolutionary level, with highly variable genes in cortex indicates purifying selection is significantly larger than highly variable genes in subcortical regions (Mann-Whitney U p = 1.4 × 10- 4).

The remaining network cluster in expression observed correlation with the level of evolution, allowing the analysis of the evolution of genes in diverse physiological systems, including the digestive system, reproductive, and immune system. Importantly, the tissue where the gene reaches a maximum variance expression varied significantly (p = 5.55 × 10-284) with an evolutionary level, shows a model of tissue-anchored protein sequence evolution.

Using large-scale reference resource, we show that the model provides a network-based approach transcriptome anchored to predict the main tissue affected by developmental disorders. Using a gradient driven regression tree to model the evolution of the level under various parameters of the model, features selected account for up to 62% of the variation in the rate of evolution and provide additional support to the network model.

Finally, we investigated several methodological implications, including the importance of gene expression imputation models-rate-conscious evolution using genetic data to improve the search for genes related disease in transcriptome-wide association studies. Collectively, this study presents a comprehensive transcriptome analysis based on the various factors that can inhibit the molecular evolution and propose a new framework for the study of gene function and disease mechanisms.

 The regulatory genome constrains protein sequence evolution: implications for the search for disease-associated genes
The regulatory genome constrains protein sequence evolution: implications for the search for disease-associated genes

Optimizing primer used nuclear protein-coding genes in the phylogeny of beetles and their applications in the genus Sasajiscymnus Vandenberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Advances in genome biology and the increasing availability of genomic resources allows developing hundreds (NPC) protein-coding nuclear markers, which can be used in phylogenetic studies. However, for lower taxonomic level, it may be more practical to select multiple loci molecules suitable for phylogenetic inference. Unfortunately, the presence of the marker NPC degenerate primers can be a major obstacle, as the amplification success rate is low and they tend to reinforce the nontargeted areas.

In this study, we optimized the five fragments NPC is widely used in phylogenetic beetle (ie, the two parts of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase: CADXM and CADMC, topoisomerase, winged and PEPCK) by reducing the length of the site and the primary sagged a little target gene. The fifth fragment NPC and 6 other molecules amplified loci to test the monophyly of the genus coccinellid Sasajiscymnus Vandenberg. Analysis of molecular data sets us clearly supported monophyletic genera may Sasajiscymnus but confirmation with extended sampling is required.

Sucrose, GlenBiol, suitable for molecular biology

GC3201-1KG 1 kg
EUR 90

BCIP (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE108 250 mg
EUR 75.6

BCIP (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE109 1 g
EUR 108

CHAPS (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE114 1 g
EUR 66

CHAPS (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE115 5 g
EUR 157.2

CHAPS (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE116 25 g
EUR 492

DAPI (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE117 5 mg
EUR 72

DAPI (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE118 25 mg
EUR 159.6

DAPI (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE119 100 mg
EUR 382.8

Dimethylsulfoxide (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE120 100 ml
EUR 66

Dimethylsulfoxide (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE121 500 ml
EUR 110.4

DTT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE131 5 g
EUR 93.6

DTT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE132 10 g
EUR 133.2

DTT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE133 25 g
EUR 243.6

Glycine (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE158 1 kg
EUR 84

Glycine (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE159 5 kg
EUR 228

HEPES (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE171 100 g
EUR 98.4

HEPES (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE172 500 g
EUR 268.8

HEPES (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE173 1 kg
EUR 424.8

Lysozyme (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE188 1 g
EUR 70.8

Lysozyme (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE189 10 g
EUR 247.2

NAD (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE196 1 g
EUR 72

NAD (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE197 5 g
EUR 165.6

NBT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE209 1 g
EUR 123.6

NBT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE210 5 g
EUR 360

Tris (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE237 500 g
EUR 106.8

Tris (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE238 1 kg
EUR 153.6

Tris (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE239 5 kg
EUR 535.2

Tween20 (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE242 1 l
EUR 106.8

Water (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE243 500 ml
EUR 62.4

Water (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE244 1 l
EUR 67.2

100mL Molecular Biology Grade

46-000-CI PK6
EUR 70.68

500mL Molecular Biology Grade

46-000-CV PK6
EUR 124.26

Water, Ultrapure Molecular Biology Grade

41024-4L 4L
EUR 145.2
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 4L

Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE105 250 g
EUR 55.2

Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE106 1 kg
EUR 72

Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE107 5 kg
EUR 153.6

Bis-Acrylamid (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE110 50 g
EUR 94.8

Bis-Acrylamid (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE111 250 g
EUR 259.2

Formamide deionized (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE145 500 ml
EUR 87.6

Formamide deionized (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE146 1 l
EUR 120

Glycerol 87 % (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE154 1 l
EUR 93.6

Glycerol waterfree (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE155 500 ml
EUR 78

Glycerol waterfree (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE156 1 l
EUR 102

Glycerol waterfree (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE157 2.5 l
EUR 170.4

Guanidine - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE160 100 g
EUR 93.6

Guanidine - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE161 250 g
EUR 153.6

Guanidine - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE162 500 g
EUR 232.8

Guanidine - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE163 1 kg
EUR 352.8

Guanidine Thiocyanate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE164 100 g
EUR 86.4

Guanidine Thiocyanate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE165 500 g
EUR 192

Guanidine Thiocyanate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE166 1 kg
EUR 307.2

MOPS buffer (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE194 100 g
EUR 102

MOPS buffer (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE195 250 g
EUR 169.2

Sodium chloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE205 500 g
EUR 62.4

Sodium chloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE206 1 kg
EUR 70.8

Sodium chloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE207 5 kg
EUR 123.6

D(+)-Sucrose (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE224 500 g
EUR 67.2

D(+)-Sucrose (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE225 1 kg
EUR 84

D(+)-Sucrose (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE226 5 kg
EUR 207.6

Tris - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE234 250 g
EUR 99.6

Tris - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE235 500 g
EUR 144

Tris - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE236 1 kg
EUR 223.2

TritonX-100 (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE240 500 ml
EUR 67.2

TritonX-100 (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE241 1 l
EUR 79.2

Tween 20, Molecular Biology Grade

T9100-010 100ml
EUR 86.4

Tween 20, Molecular Biology Grade

T9100-050 500ml
EUR 133.2

Tween 20, Molecular Biology Grade

T9100-100 1L
EUR 160.8

1L Molecular Biology Grade Water

46-000-CM PK6
EUR 177.84

Water, distilled, GlenBiol™, suitable for molecular biology

GK8512-1L 1 l
EUR 92.4

Agarose, low EEO, GlenBiol, suitable for molecular biology

GE6258-100G 100 g
EUR 217.2

Crystalline

5-01010 10mg Ask for price

EDTA - Dinatriumsalz - Dihydrat (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE135 250 g
EUR 72

EDTA - Dinatriumsalz - Dihydrat (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE136 500 g
EUR 86.4

EDTA - Dinatriumsalz - Dihydrat (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE137 1 kg
EUR 124.8

EDTA - Dinatriumsalz - Dihydrat (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE138 5 kg
EUR 418.8

D(+)-Glucose waterfree (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE148 500 g
EUR 67.2

D(+)-Glucose waterfree (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE149 1 kg
EUR 75.6

D(+)-Glucose waterfree (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE150 5 kg
EUR 180

Yeast extract powder (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE169 500 g
EUR 133.2

Hyaluronidase Grade I (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE174 1 g
EUR 232.8

Hyaluronidase Grade I (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE175 5 g
EUR 920.4

Magnesium acetate - Tetrahydrate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE190 500 g
EUR 98.4

NADH - Disodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE198 1 g
EUR 91.2

NADH - Disodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE199 5 g
EUR 244.8

NADP - sodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE200 250 mg
EUR 92.4

NADP - sodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE201 1 g
EUR 190.8

NADPH - Tetrasodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE202 25 mg
EUR 70.8

NADPH - Tetrasodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE203 100 mg
EUR 126

NADPH - Tetrasodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE204 500 mg
EUR 374.4

SSC Buffer (20X) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE229 1 l
EUR 86.4

XTT sodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE250 100 mg
EUR 208.8

XTT sodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE251 500 mg
EUR 612

Albumin fraction V (pH7,0) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE100 50 g
EUR 128.4

Albumin fraction V (pH7,0) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE101 100 g
EUR 193.2

Albumin fraction V (pH7,0) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE102 250 g
EUR 387.6

Albumin fraction V (pH7,0) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE103 500 g
EUR 656.4

Albumin fraction V (pH7,0) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE104 1 kg
EUR 1162.8

Agarose LE, Ultra-Pure Molecular Biology Grade, 100 g

41028-100G 100G
EUR 266.4
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 100G

Agarose LE, Ultra-Pure Molecular Biology Grade, 25 g

41028-25G 25G
EUR 130.8
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 25G

Agarose LE, Ultra-Pure Molecular Biology Grade, 500 g

41028-500G 500G
EUR 862.8
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 500G

EDTA solution pH 8.0 (0.5 M) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE141 500 ml
EUR 87.6

LB-Agar - Powder according to Lennox (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE178 500 g
EUR 109.2

LB-Agar - Powder according to Lennox (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE179 2.5 kg
EUR 301.2

LB-Agar - Powder according to Miller (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE180 500 g
EUR 104.4

LB-Agar - Powder according to Miller (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE181 2.5 kg
EUR 295.2

LB-Medium - Powder according to Lennox (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE182 500 g
EUR 108

LB-Medium - Powder according to Lennox (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE183 2.5 kg
EUR 301.2

LB-Medium - Powder according to Miller (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE184 2.5 kg
EUR 295.2

AGAROSE LE, LOW EEO, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE, 100G PER UNIT

AGR-LE-100 1/pk
EUR 201.6
Description: Bioscience Mol Bio; Agarose

Bulk Beads Zr 0.1mm Triple-Pure Molecular Biology Grade 250g

HOM3048 250G
EUR 536.94

Bulk Beads Zr 0.5mm Triple-Pure Molecular Biology Grade 250g

HOM3050 250G
EUR 536.94

Bulk Beads Zr 1.0mm Triple-Pure Molecular Biology Grade 250g

HOM3052 250G
EUR 536.94

Bulk Beads Zr 1.5mm Triple-Pure Molecular Biology Grade 250g

HOM3054 250G
EUR 536.94

Bulk Beads Zr 3.0mm Triple-Pure Molecular Biology Grade 300g

HOM3056 300G
EUR 536.94

Phenol

20-abx184753
  • EUR 292.80
  • EUR 260.40
  • 1 kg
  • 500 g

Phenol

S-3030 1ML
EUR 38.76

AGAROSE LE, LOW EEO, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE, 500G/UNIT, 10 UNITS PER CASE

AGR-LE-5001 1/pk
EUR 3669.6
Description: Bioscience Mol Bio; Agarose

AGAROSE MS, PCR SCREENING, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE, 100G/UNIT, 10 UNITS PER CASE

AGR-MS-1001 1/pk
EUR 2445.6
Description: Bioscience Mol Bio; Agarose

Hettich Lid For Rotor Phenol Resistant

CEN0811 EACH
EUR 282.72

AGAROSE LE, LOW EEO, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE, 100G PER UNIT, 10 UNITS PER CASE

AGR-LE-1001 1/pk
EUR 926.4
Description: Bioscience Mol Bio; Agarose

AGAROSE LM, LOW MELTING, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE, 100G/UNIT, 10 UNITS PER CASE (AL)

AGR-LM-1001 1/pk
EUR 4484.4
Description: Bioscience Mol Bio; Agarose

AGAROSE LM, LOW MELTING, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE, 50G/UNIT, 10 UNITS PER CASE (AL)

AGR-LM-501 1/pk
EUR 2490
Description: Bioscience Mol Bio; Agarose

Crystalline [H-Trp-Gly-OH; MW: 261.2]

SP-55342-1 1 mg
EUR 169.2

2 Deoxyadenosine 5Triphosphate Disodium Crystalline dATP 250mg

27185004 EACH
EUR 355.68

Water Phenol

abx082109-250ml 250 ml
EUR 226.8

Nonyl Phenol

AG037 1 mg
EUR 627.6

Nonyl Phenol

AT037 1mg
EUR 1641.6

Phenol, 99%

GK6990-100G 100 g
EUR 52.8

Phenol, 99%

GK6990-1KG 1 kg
EUR 93.6

Phenol, 99%

GK6990-500G 500 g
EUR 67.2

Phenol Red

GT9844-100G 100 g
EUR 132

Phenol Red

GT9844-250G 250 g
EUR 217.2

Phenol Red

GT9844-25G 25 g
EUR 74.4

Phenol Red

GT9844-5G 5 g
EUR 55.2

Phenol red

PB0420 25g
EUR 85.06

Phenol-d6

S-3035 1ML
EUR 38.76

ELISA kit for Human PST (Phenol Sulfotransferase)

ELK3246 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 518.4
Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Phenol Sulfotransferase from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids.

ELISA kit for Mouse PST (Phenol Sulfotransferase)

ELK3642 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 518.4
Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Phenol Sulfotransferase from Mouse in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids.

ELISA kit for Rat PST (Phenol Sulfotransferase)

ELK6740 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 518.4
Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Phenol Sulfotransferase from Rat in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids.

Phenol Std Phenol 2000ug/mL in MeOH

REPHE110 1ML
EUR 88.92

Phenol Std Phenol 100ug/mL in DCM

REPHE119 1ML
EUR 43.32

Phenol, 4-propoxy-

20-abx184303
  • EUR 627.60
  • EUR 343.20
  • 125g
  • 25 g

2-(Aminomethyl)phenol

20-abx185699
  • EUR 376.80
  • EUR 1730.40
  • EUR 710.40
  • 1 g
  • 25 g
  • 5 g

3-(Aminomethyl)phenol

20-abx185751
  • EUR 510.00
  • EUR 2732.40
  • EUR 1028.40
  • 1 g
  • 25 g
  • 5 g

Phenol Red Solution

CA013-010 100ml
EUR 82.8

4-(Benzyloxy)phenol

GP9986-100G 100 g
EUR 141.6

4-(Benzyloxy)phenol

GP9986-250G 250 g
EUR 237.6

4-(Benzyloxy)phenol

GP9986-25G 25 g
EUR 70.8

Phenol, saturated (pH7.9)

PC6910 100ml
EUR 91.32

Phenol, saturated (pH4.5)

PC6920 100ml
EUR 91.32

30UL CLEAR PIPET TIPS FOR MOLECULAR DEVICE LIBERTY.

LT-384-R 3840/pk
EUR 2631.6
Description: Robotic Tips; Robotic tips - Axygen

30ul Clear Pipet Tips for Molecular Device Liberty.

LT384R PK19200
EUR 4174.68

Molecular Weight Marker

abx098957-15ul 15 ul
EUR 126

Agarose, Molecular Grade

BIO-41025 500g Ask for price

Agarose, Molecular Grade

BIO-41026 100g Ask for price

Molecular sieves 200g

TIT1072 200G
EUR 564.3

Folin & Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent

abx082175-50ml 50 ml
EUR 226.8

Phenol Sulfotransferase (PST) Antibody

20-abx102281
  • EUR 493.20
  • EUR 159.60
  • EUR 1378.80
  • EUR 678.00
  • EUR 376.80
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Phenol Sulfotransferase (PST) Antibody

20-abx102282
  • EUR 526.80
  • EUR 159.60
  • EUR 1496.40
  • EUR 710.40
  • EUR 393.60
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Phenol Sulfotransferase (PST) Antibody

20-abx129668
  • EUR 510.00
  • EUR 159.60
  • EUR 1412.40
  • EUR 693.60
  • EUR 393.60
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Phenol Sulfotransferase (PST) Antibody

20-abx174014
  • EUR 978.00
  • EUR 510.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Phenol Sulfotransferase (PST) Antibody

20-abx174015
  • EUR 1045.20
  • EUR 543.60
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

2,6-Bis(Trifluoromethyl)Phenol

abx188185-5g 5 g
EUR 3032.4

A fossil-calibrated kronogram produced by BEAST, shows the origin of the genus in the late Cretaceous period (77.87 Myr). In addition, phylogenetic informativeness profile is generated to compare the phylogenetic nature of each gene is more explicit. The results showed that COI provide phylogenetic signal is the strongest among all the genes, but PEPCK, topoisomerase, CADXM and CADMC also relatively informative. Our results provide insight into the evolution of the genus Sasajiscymnus, and also enriches the molecular source of data for further study.